Exosomes are vesicles, or cellular components, that exist outside of a cell. They are about 40-100nm in diameter and are secreted by most cells. It has a lipid membrane structure and is coated with proteins and other substances internally. The primary function of Exosomes is to carry information from place to place with different purposes and functions and direct the cells on how and when to react.
How are the Exosomes formed?
Exosomes are derived from intraluminal vesicles (ILVs). The ILVs are believed to be formed based on two mechanisms. One is based on endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, which is comprised of cytosolic protein complexes. The ESCRT machinery forms cluster of proteins on the endosome, inducing curvature of the membrane to form ILVs.
Why are Exosomes so important?
Exosomes have been found to play a vital role in cancer immune detection and tumor through communication between immune cells and cancer cells. They can travel all around the body and are found to be present in every bodily fluid. The journey of the exosomes in the body ends when it is taken up by a recipient cell. Only specific target cells accept these exosomes.
A small fraction of exosomes breaks down rapidly after their release accelerating the growth factors and other substances that can activate the receptors on nearby cells. The lifetime of the exosomes circulating inside the body could be only for a few hours, but their influence upon the recipient is long-lasting.
Exosomes play an essential role in the communication between the cells of a pregnant woman and the cells of her fetus. The exosomes are used by the fetal cells to signal that their organs have matured, triggering labor pains in the mother. They also play an essential role in directing the organization of neurons and the establishment of neural circuits in the developing brain.
What is Exosomes Therapy used for?
Exosome therapy is a minimally invasive procedure used to treat a host of ailments such as anti-aging, orthopedic injuries, and degenerative diseases. It involves injecting exosomes into the affected area like in orthopedic injuries or given intravenously for anti-aging. The dosage varies from person to person.
Hair Loss: Exosome injections can be used to regrow hair. When the exosomes are injected into the affected area, it will trigger healing, cell stimulation, and natural regeneration of the hair follicles. Exosome hair loss therapy is the latest advancement in hair restoration as they help regenerate cells that heal, repair, stimulate and restore cells and tissues.
Lyme disease: Exosome treatment helps in the treatment of Lyme disease, which affects the immune system. Many Lyme patients suffer the dysfunction of the mast cells, triggering their inflammatory response and metabolic function. Exosome treatment helps in breaking the inflammatory response and heals the body by providing it with the required cellular information to expedite healing.
Arthritis: It is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of the joints. Exosome therapy has been confirmed to be very useful in reversing the progression of arthritis. It is believed to play an essential role in bone and cartilage remodeling.
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