Exosomes are extracellular vesicles, which are tiny fluid-filled sacs or nanoparticles that are found in regenerative cells in the body. They are made of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids like RNAs, which can be transferred to the recipient cells in the body. The cells manufacturing and deploying exosomes help in the regeneration of tissue, control inflammation, repair injuries, and support regenerative therapies to treat certain diseases.
The exosomes extracted from the stem cells have been used to repair aging tissues of the body because of their ability to regenerate. They also help the cells to heal themselves and also play a part in eliminating cellular cytotoxins.
Exosomes are derived from intraluminal vesicles (ILVs). The ILVs are believed to be formed based on two mechanisms. One is based on endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, which is comprised of cytosolic protein complexes. The ESCRT machinery forms cluster of proteins on the endosome, inducing curvature of the membrane to form ILVs.
The human skin starts to show signs of aging with the passage of time, such as wrinkling and scars. It occurs due to the inability of the skin cells to regenerate. Exosomes may be the solution to delay this process as they work on a cellular level to give a boost to skin cell regeneration. This is done by encouraging the development of fibroblasts cells, which are vital to maintaining skin elasticity and strength. They are already being used in facials at anti-aging clinics. In addition, they are also available as moisturizers.
There are topical skin rejuvenation therapies that utilize topical skin treatments such as micro-needling along with exosomes, hyaluronic acid, and micro RNA to help stimulate healing and regenerate new skin. During the exosome facials, dermal fillers are also used to help lift the sagging skin. The micro-needling procedure is followed up by injecting the exosomes product into the area of concern. These exosomes anti-aging treatments not only revitalize the skin but also help in the following manner:
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